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What are the built-in functions in Python and what are they used for?

Python provides a wide range of built-in functions that are readily available for use without requiring any additional imports. These functions are part of the Python standard library and serve various purposes. Here are some commonly used built-in functions and their uses:

print(): The print() function is used to display output on the console. It accepts one or more arguments and displays them as text.

input(): The input() function is used to read input from the user via the console. It displays a prompt and waits for the user to enter a value, which is then returned as a string.

Type Conversion Functions:

  • int(), float(), str(), bool(): These functions are used to convert values to integer, float, string, and boolean data types, respectively.

Mathematical Functions:

  • abs(): Returns the absolute value of a number.
  • max(), min(): Returns the maximum or minimum value from a sequence of numbers or iterable.
  • pow(): Raises a number to a specified power.
  • round(): Rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places.

Sequence Functions:

  • len(): Returns the length of a sequence (such as a string, list, or tuple).
  • sorted(): Returns a sorted list from an iterable.
  • sum(): Returns the sum of all elements in an iterable.

String Functions:

  • upper(), lower(): Converts a string to uppercase or lowercase.
  • capitalize(): Converts the first character of a string to uppercase.
  • strip(), lstrip(), rstrip(): Removes whitespace or specified characters from the beginning or end of a string.
  • split(): Splits a string into a list of substrings based on a delimiter.

File Functions:

  • open(): Opens a file and returns a file object for reading or writing.
  • close(): Closes an open file.
  • read(), readline(), readlines(): Read the contents of a file.

Iterating and Iterables:

  • range(): Generates a sequence of numbers.
  • enumerate(): Returns an iterator that provides both the index and value of items in a sequence.

Exception Handling:

  • try, except: Used for handling exceptions and errors in a program.
  • raise: Raises an exception manually.

These are just a few examples of the many built-in functions available in Python. The Python standard library offers a vast collection of functions for various purposes, including data manipulation, file handling, mathematical operations, string manipulation, and more. Additionally, Python also supports third-party libraries that provide additional functions and capabilities beyond the built-in ones.

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