How does Go handle multithreading and synchronization?

In Go, multithreading and synchronization are handled through goroutines and channels. Goroutines are lightweight threads that are managed by the Go runtime, and they allow concurrent execution of multiple functions within a single program. Channels are used for communication and synchronization between goroutines.

Go provides several mechanisms for synchronization, including the sync package, which provides synchronization primitives such as mutexes, conditions, and wait groups. These primitives can be used to ensure that only one goroutine accesses a shared resource at a time, or to coordinate the execution of multiple goroutines.

In addition to these built-in synchronization mechanisms, Go also provides a number of third-party libraries and tools for handling multithreading and synchronization, such as the package, which provides a way to handle errors across multiple goroutines, and the package, which provides a way to limit the number of goroutines that can access a shared resource at a time.

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