How does Go handle error handling and exception management, and what are the best practices for error handling in Go programs?

In Go, errors are represented by the built-in error interface, which has a single method Error() string that returns the error message. Go encourages the use of explicit error handling, rather than relying on exceptions, to make code more predictable and reliable.

Go provides several built-in functions to help with error handling, including **panic** and **recover**. **panic** is used to cause a runtime error that halts the program, while **recover** is used to handle panics and resume normal execution.

Best practices for error handling in Go include:

  1. Use **errors.New** or **fmt.Errorf** to create custom error messages with context information.
  2. Use sentinel errors or error variables to represent common errors that may occur.
  3. Avoid using **panic** except in rare cases where a program cannot continue.
  4. Use **defer** to handle cleanup and resource deallocation after a function returns, even in the case of an error.
  5. When calling functions that may return errors, handle the error immediately or propagate it to the calling function.
  6. Avoid ignoring errors by always checking the return value of functions that may return errors.

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