What is the difference between Goroutines and Threads in Go?

In Go, a Goroutine is a lightweight thread of execution managed by the Go runtime. Goroutines allow for concurrent and parallel programming, making it possible to execute multiple tasks simultaneously without having to create and manage individual threads.

The key difference between Goroutines and traditional threads is that Goroutines are much lighter weight and have a much smaller memory footprint. They are managed by the Go runtime and use a technique called "multiplexing" to efficiently manage and schedule thousands or even millions of Goroutines on a small number of operating system threads.

Unlike traditional threads, which can be expensive to create and switch between, Goroutines can be created quickly and switched between efficiently, making it possible to have many Goroutines running concurrently without incurring a significant performance penalty.

Another key difference is that Goroutines are designed to be safe for concurrent access to shared memory. By default, Go provides built-in mechanisms for safely sharing memory between Goroutines, such as channels and locks. This makes it easier to write concurrent and parallel programs without the risk of race conditions or other synchronization issues that can arise with traditional threads.

Here's an example of a simple Goroutine:

func main() {
    // Start a Goroutine
    go printHello()

    // Wait for user input
    var input string

func printHello() {
    // Print "Hello, World!"
    fmt.Println("Hello, World!")

In this example, we start a Goroutine by calling **go printHello()**. This creates a new Goroutine and executes the **printHello** function in that Goroutine concurrently with the main Goroutine. The main Goroutine then waits for user input using **fmt.Scanln()**, while the ****printHello**** Goroutine prints "Hello, World!" to the console. Note that the program will exit immediately after printing "Hello, World!" unless we wait for user input.

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