What is the difference between Go's stack-allocated and heap-allocated variables?

In Go, variables can be allocated on either the stack or the heap depending on their type and how they are declared.

Stack-allocated variables are allocated on the program's call stack, which is a region of memory used for storing local variables and function call frames. Stack allocation is typically faster than heap allocation because it involves a simple adjustment of the stack pointer.

Heap-allocated variables are allocated dynamically at runtime using the **new** or **make** functions or by using a pointer to the variable. Heap allocation involves the allocation of memory from the heap, which is a region of memory used for dynamic memory allocation.

The choice between stack and heap allocation depends on several factors, including the size and lifetime of the variable, as well as the programming context in which it is used. Variables that are small and have a short lifetime are typically allocated on the stack, while larger variables with longer lifetimes are allocated on the heap. Additionally, certain types of variables, such as arrays, slices, and maps, are always allocated on the heap regardless of their size and lifetime because their size cannot be determined at compile time.

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