In Go, there are two ways to declare and initialize variables: short variable declaration and long variable declaration.
Short variable declaration: The short variable declaration := is used for declaring and initializing a variable in one line. The type of the variable is inferred from the value on the right-hand side of the assignment. For example:
x := 10
Long variable declaration: The long variable declaration is used for declaring and initializing variables in separate lines. The type of the variable is explicitly stated in the declaration. For example:
var x int
x = 10
The main difference between the short and long variable declarations is that the short declaration can only be used inside a function, whereas the long declaration can be used at both the package and function levels. Additionally, the short declaration cannot be used to redeclare an existing variable in the same scope, whereas the long declaration can.