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What is the difference between "and" and "or" in Python?

In Python, the and and or operators are used to perform logical operations and combine conditions. They have the following key differences:

Logical AND (and):

  • The and operator returns True if both operands are True. If any operand is False, it returns False.
  • It performs short-circuit evaluation, meaning that if the first operand evaluates to False, the second operand is not evaluated.

Logical OR (or):

  • The or operator returns True if at least one of the operands is True. If all operands are False, it returns False.
  • It also performs short-circuit evaluation. If the first operand evaluates to True, the second operand is not evaluated.

Here's an example to illustrate the difference between and and or:

x = 5
y = 10

# Logical AND (and)
if x > 0 and y < 20:
    print("Both conditions are True")
else:
    print("At least one condition is False")

# Logical OR (or)
if x > 0 or y > 20:
    print("At least one condition is True")
else:
    print("Both conditions are False")

In this example, the first if statement uses the and operator. Since both conditions (x > 0 and y < 20) are true, the output will be "Both conditions are True".

The second if statement uses the or operator. Although the second condition (y > 20) is false, the first condition (x > 0) is true, so the output will be "At least one condition is True".

It's important to note that the and and or operators perform short-circuit evaluation. This means that if the outcome of the expression can be determined by evaluating only one operand, the other operand is not evaluated. For example, in the expression x > 0 and y < 20, if x > 0 is False, the value of y < 20 is not evaluated because the overall result of the expression will be False regardless.

In summary, use the and operator to check if all conditions are true, and use the or operator to check if at least one condition is true. The choice between and and or depends on the specific logic you want to implement.

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