How does Go support multithreading and multiprocessing, and what are the various techniques and strategies for implementing multithreading and multiprocessing in Go programs?

In Go, the primary mechanism for managing concurrency is goroutines, which are lightweight, independently scheduled functions that run concurrently. However, Go also provides support for multithreading and multiprocessing through the sync and runtime packages.

The **sync** package provides several types for synchronizing access to shared resources, such as **Mutex** for mutual exclusion, **RWMutex** for read-write mutual exclusion, and **Cond** for condition variables. These types can be used to coordinate access to shared resources across multiple goroutines or threads.

The **runtime** package provides lower-level control over goroutines and threads, including functions for setting the number of operating system threads that the Go runtime should use (**GOMAXPROCS**), querying the number of active goroutines (**NumGoroutine**), and controlling the scheduling of goroutines (**Gosched**).

To implement multithreading and multiprocessing in Go programs, the **sync** and **runtime** packages can be used in conjunction with goroutines and channels. For example, multiple goroutines can be created to perform independent tasks, with a **WaitGroup** from the **sync** package used to synchronize their completion. Alternatively, multiple threads can be created using the **runtime** package, with each thread running its own set of goroutines. However, it is important to note that multithreading and multiprocessing can introduce additional complexity and overhead, and should only be used when necessary to achieve performance improvements.

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