How does Go handle synchronization and communication between Goroutines?

Go provides several mechanisms for synchronization and communication between Goroutines to avoid race conditions and ensure safe concurrent access to shared resources.

Mutexes: A Mutex is a mutual exclusion lock used to protect shared resources from concurrent access. A Goroutine can acquire the Mutex, perform the operation on the shared resource, and release the Mutex. This ensures that only one Goroutine has access to the shared resource at a time.

RWMutexes: RWMutex (Read-Write Mutex) is a more flexible Mutex that allows multiple Goroutines to read the shared resource at the same time, while ensuring that only one Goroutine can write to the shared resource.

WaitGroups: WaitGroup is used to wait for a group of Goroutines to finish executing before proceeding to the next stage. It provides a way to add Goroutines to the group, wait for them to finish, and then proceed.

Atomic Operations: Go provides a set of atomic operations, such as AddInt64, CompareAndSwapInt32, etc., that allow atomic access to shared variables without requiring a Mutex. Atomic operations provide a way to perform read-modify-write operations on shared variables without risking race conditions.

Channels: Channels are a powerful mechanism in Go for synchronization and communication between Goroutines. A channel can be used to send and receive data between Goroutines, and the sending and receiving operations are atomic, so there is no need to worry about race conditions.

Overall, Go provides a rich set of synchronization and communication mechanisms that allow developers to write safe and efficient concurrent programs.

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