How does Go handle deadlocks and race conditions in concurrent programs?

Go has built-in support for detecting and preventing deadlocks and race conditions in concurrent programs.

Deadlocks occur when two or more Goroutines are waiting for each other to release resources they need to proceed. Go provides the **sync.Mutex** type to manage access to shared resources and prevent deadlocks. A mutex is a mutual exclusion lock that can be used to synchronize access to shared resources. It can be locked and unlocked by Goroutines to control access to the shared resource. Go also provides the **sync.RWMutex** type for read/write access to shared resources.

Race conditions occur when multiple Goroutines access shared resources concurrently and the result depends on the order in which they execute. To prevent race conditions, Go provides a tool called the race detector. The race detector is built into the Go compiler and can be enabled with the **-race** flag. When enabled, the race detector will report any data races that occur in your program.

In addition to these built-in tools, Go also encourages a design pattern called "share memory by communicating". This means that instead of having multiple Goroutines access shared memory directly, they should communicate through channels, which are safe for concurrent access. This can help prevent race conditions and deadlocks by providing a clear, synchronized communication mechanism between Goroutines.

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