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Explain the use of Go's struct embedding and inheritance for creating and extending structs in Go?

Go supports struct embedding, which is a way to compose struct types by including one struct type as a field of another struct type. This allows for code reuse and extension of struct types. Struct embedding in Go is similar to inheritance in object-oriented programming languages.

When a struct type is embedded as a field in another struct type, the fields and methods of the embedded struct type become part of the embedding struct type. This means that the embedding struct type can access the fields and methods of the embedded struct type as if they were its own.

For example, consider the following code:

type Person struct {
    name string
}

func (p *Person) Greet() {
    fmt.Printf("Hello, my name is %s\n", p.name)
}

type Employee struct {
    Person
    id int
}

func main() {
    e := Employee{Person{"Alice"}, 123}
    fmt.Println(e.name)
    e.Greet()
}

In this code, the **Person** struct type is embedded as a field in the **Employee** struct type. The **Employee** struct type has an additional field, **id**. The **Greet** method of the **Person** struct type is also inherited by the **Employee** struct type.

When an instance of the **Employee** struct type is created, its **name** field can be accessed directly as **e.name**, even though it is a field of the embedded **Person** struct type. The **Greet** method of the **Person** struct type can also be called on an instance of the **Employee** struct type, as shown in the **main** function.

Struct embedding in Go allows for flexible and reusable code design, as it provides a way to build up complex struct types from simpler ones.

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